Adelaide - a city in Australia, the capital of the state of South Australia, is located on the Torrens River, at its mouth to the Bay of Saint Vincent. The fifth largest city in Australia with a population of over 1.3 million inhabitants.
Adelaide has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. The city is also the driest of the states capitals of Australia. Average temperatures and precipitation:
- average maximum temperature in January: 28.8 ° C
- average minimum temperature in January: 16.8 ° C
- average maximum temperature in June: 15.3 ° C
- average minimum temperature in June: 7,4 ° C
- average annual rainfall: 558.1 mm
- the hottest month: June, 83.1 mm
- the driest month: February, 13.7 mm
the highest recorded temperature: 44.3 ° C lowest recorded temperature: -0.4 ° C (31.3 ° F) the hottest month: June 174,6 mm
In 2008, Adelaide underwent a record wave of heat, for fifteen consecutive days from March 3 to March 17, 2008, the maximum temperature was over 35 ° C.
The first inhabitants of the areas on which Adelaide was later formed are aborigines from the Kaurna tribe who called this region "Tandanya" (land of red kangaroos)
The name Adelaide comes from the name of William IV of Hanover Queen Adelaide, and in Adelaide is also part of the Queen's private library
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British settlers established the province under the name of South Australia on December 28, 1836 (this day is celebrated as a Proclamation Day public holiday). The place for the future city was chosen by Colonel William Light, he also outlined the city's first plans. As the city center of Light, he chose a hill located close to the banks of the Torrens River (which was the main source of water for the newly created city). Colonel Light also developed the so-called "Light's vision", an urban plan of the city's buildings based on a square with one-mile side surrounded by a wide strip of parks and green areas with wide streets and alleys intersecting at right angles.
Adelaide was planned as a center for the newly emerging colony for free emigrants from Europe (and not as for other Australian states for exiles from England), religious and civil liberties were guaranteed to future settlers. For these reasons, many refugees from Germany settled in South Australia (by chance coincidence the word "adelaide" means "noble face" in German).
Adelaide is an important industrial and scientific center in Australia. It includes, among others, Holden and Mitsubishi car factories, as well as a large research center of the defense industry "DSTO" ("Defense Science and Technology Organization" - where the other slogan of South Australia "SA - the Defense State" comes from). Other major industrial branches are the engineering, chemical, electrotechnical, wine and textile industries.
Adelaide has three major Australian universities in the University of South Australia (UniSA), the University of Adelaide and Flinders University. The entire city is covered by a vast public transport system, known as the "Adelaide Metro", which includes the unique O-bahn (special bus route), as well as the historic streetcar to the coastal district of Glenelg.
Adelaide is an important point on the "Indian Pacific" railway line from Perth to Sydney, as well as the beginning of the newly completed "The Ghan" railway line running through Alice Springs to Darwin. The main railway station is Adelaide.
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Adelaide also has an international airport.
Adelaide is known as the "City of Churches" because of the large number of churches in many denominations located in this city, but according to a popular saying, at least one pub was built for each of the churches built.
Since its inception, Adelaide has attracted immigrants from many countries, especially Germans fleeing religious persecution in their own country, they brought with them the first vine seedlings and they founded the famous vineyards of the Barossa Valley. After the Second World War, a lot of refugees came to South Australia and Adelaide from most European countries, the most from Italy, Greece, the Netherlands and Poland. The first large wave of emigrants from Asia comes from the Vietnam War. This unique, even for Australian conditions, mix of cultures and traditions is reflected primarily in the rich and varied cuisine of many cafes and restaurants in Adelaide (according to unofficial data Adelaide has the most restaurants on the number of residents in Australia).
A large part of the areas around Adelaide are occupied by vineyards which, including the famous Barossa Valley, are a frequent destination for both tourists and residents of Adelaide.
The cultural life in Adelaide developed in the 1970s under the reign of Don Dunston, who is considered the father of modern South Australia, changed many of the outdated and puritanical laws that were in force at that time and Adelaide began to be known then from many different kinds of festivals (one of the state motto is "South Australia - The Festival State"). The most famous festivals in Adelaide in the world include the "Barossa Music Festival", "Adelaide Festival of Arts", "Adelaide Film Festival", "Adelaide Fringe", and the most famous and popular is WOMADelaide - Australia's largest music festival " world and ethnicity taking place in the picturesque parks of the Botanical Garden.
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In the years 1985 to 1995, in the eastern part of the city, the Formula 1 Grand Prix of Australia ended. During the race, some streets were closed, which were partially modified for the needs of the cars, and almost the whole town took part in a three-day play. In 1996, the controversial race was moved to Melbourne, and as part of the compensation the South Australian government organized the "Clipsal 500" in which the "V8 Supercar" cars participate on a race track similar to that used by Formula 1.
Adelaide is the seat of two Australian football teams "Adelaide Crows" and "Port Adelaide Power". Sports in Adelaide, as well as in other Australian cities, are taken very seriously and the successes of the South Australian teams are a great source of pride for all Adelaide residents (especially when the Adelaide team wins against the Melbourne team - the capital of Victoria is Adelaide's age-old rival). Other popular sports teams from Adelaide include "Adelaide 36ers" (men's basketball), "Adelaide Lightning" (women's basketball), "Southern Redbacks" (cricket) and many more.
Internationally renowned artists, music bands and musicians from Adelaide include directors Scott Hicks and Rolf de Heer, actors Anthony LaPaglia and Jonathan LaPaglia, musicians Jimmy Barnes, Guy Sebastian, John Farnham, bands The Mark of Cain and The Superjesus. Adelaide from North Carolina has been living with Ben Folds since 1999.
Other famous people from Adelaide include Alexander Downer (former Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Australian Government), Sir Mark Oliphant, physicist and state governor, Nobel laureates William Henry Bragg, his son William Lawrence Bragg and Howard Florey (honored for his discovery related to penicillin). The tennis players Lleyton Hewitt and Mark Woodforde also come from Adelaide .
Adelaide was also home to one of the Antarctic pioneers Sir Dauglas Mawson and the first woman who became a judge in Australia (and later the first female governor of South Australia) Dame Roma Mitchell.
The most popular sport in Adelaide is Australian football. The pride of the city are two clubs appearing in the AFL national league:
- Adelaide Football Club, commonly known as "Adelaide Crows"
- Port Adelaide Football Club, called "Port Adelaide Power"
Until 1995, the GP of Formula 1 Australia was transferred to Melbourne at the Adelaide Street Circuit.
Adelaide has several sister cities located all over the world, these are:
- Christchurch, New Zealand - 1972
- George Town, Malaysia - 1973
- Himeji, Japan - 1982
- Austin, United States - 1983